February 2003

 Roberto Giraldo[1], Pedro Ródenas[1], Juán José Flores[3] and Alfredo Embid[4]

 Acknowledgment: This article was originally written in Spanish. Its translation into English has been possible thanks to the generous editorial assistance of William Castillo, Philadelphia PA.



1. Understanding the real causes of AIDS.
2. Diagnosis using clinical and laboratory findings.
3. Avoiding exposure to immunological stressor agents.
4. Detoxifying the immune system and other systems.
5. Stimulating and regenerating the immune system and other systems.
6. Treating the clinical manifestations of AIDS.
7. Adopting natural treatment and therapies.
8. Initiating treatment at the appropriate time.

Scientific evidence shows that AIDS is neither an infectious nor a contagious disease, but is instead a degenerative toxic and nutritional illness (1-11), caused by involuntary and sometimes voluntary exposure to the alarming global increase of immunological stressor agents, which are of chemical, physical, biological, mental and nutritional origin (3). These stressor agents in the body induce an excess of free radicals, especially oxidizing agents (9-44), which progressively impair the immune system, eventually causing it to collapse while simultaneously provoking manifestations of opportunistic infections, tumors and metabolic disturbances. However, AIDS can be treated, prevented, and eradicated in effective, easy, and inexpensive ways (45,a-c).

Eight basic principles can and should guide the treatment and prevention of AIDS, which is, in reality, a toxic and nutritional illness: 1) Understanding the real causes of AIDS; 2) Diagnosis using clinical and laboratory findings; 3) Avoiding exposure to immunological stressor agents; 4) Detoxifying the immune and other systems; 5) Stimulating and regenerating the immune and other systems; 6) Treating the clinical manifestations of AIDS; 7) Adopting natural treatment and therapies; and 8) Initiating treatment at the appropriate time (a-c). The application of these basic principles will depend upon the particular condition of each individual or community and may be adapted to specific cases by health professionals or therapists in conjunction with the consent and cooperation of the interested or affected individuals.

AIDS may be managed like any other chronic, degenerative illness. Once a patient manifests mild, moderate or severe immunological deficiency, the patient will be required to take precautions for the rest of his/her life, such as is done by patients who suffer from diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis, renal insufficiency and other chronic conditions.

Following this article is a list of references and a bibliography which sustain the scientific validity of these alternative approaches for the treatment and prevention of AIDS. Study of these sources is strongly encouraged for those seeking a deeper understanding of the issues. Furthermore, following this article is a list of websites providing scientific arguments and abundant references regarding the international scientific debate concerning the causes of and solutions for AIDS.

Eight Basic Principles for the Treatment and Prevention of AIDS:


1.1. It is essential that affected individuals and communities rid themselves of the erroneous belief that AIDS is an infectious, viral, contagious, and fatal illness (1-11). Accordingly, the simplistic equation that HIV = AIDS = DEATH must be deconstructed.

1.2. Similarly, the myth that being “HIV-positive” means infection with the virus that supposedly causes AIDS must be dispelled, since being “HIV-positive” or “seropositive” in reality means that the person has been exposed to toxins and is undergoing oxidative stress (46).

1.3. These faulty beliefs, in and of themselves, cause harm to the immune system and can lead to the development of AIDS, as has been demonstrated by psychoneuroimmunology (47-53).

1.4. Comprehensive evidence should be provided demonstrating that involuntary and sometimes voluntary, multiple, repeated, and chronic exposure to immunological stressor agents ­– whether they be chemical, physical, biological, mental or nutritional in origin – intoxicate, oxidize, and progressively deteriorate the immune system, causing it to collapse and thereby generating AIDS (4,54).


2.1. Be aware that involuntary and sometimes voluntary, multiple, repeated, and chronic exposure to stressor agents not only intoxicate and progressively harm the immune system, but also damage all other organs and systems in the body (4,54). Exposure to these toxic agents does not affect each person in the same manner and therefore identical or similar stressors can bring about different patterns of disease in different individuals or populations (a-j,z).

2.2. Accordingly, the complete health status of the individual or community should be carefully evaluated using available conventional clinical and laboratory tests to establish the state of the blood, serum, plasma, urine, stool, and other body liquids. Furthermore, alternative and complementary techniques such as iridology, kinesiology, bioelectronics, pulses of oriental medicine and other techniques may be used (d-j).

2.3. It is important to evaluate the functioning status of the immune system with tests such as T and B cell counts, blastogenic responses of lymphocytes, T cell proliferation and differentiation, activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes, timuline activity, total complement, C3, C4, as well as immunoglobulin levels (55-57).

2.4. A detailed evaluation should be made of the activation status of the immune system with tests such as serology for hepatitis A, B, and C, syphilis, toxoplasma, herpes viruses, cytomegalovirus infection (CMV), rubella, mononucleosis, rheumatoid factor, antistreptolisins, erythrosedimentation rate, C reactive protein, beta 2 microglobulin, Combs test, agglutinins, immune complexes, and skin tests (55-57).

2.5. Testing should be done to determine the functioning status of the endocrine glands, kidneys, liver, skin and all other organs and body systems.

2.6. A meticulous evaluation of nutritional markers is invaluable, using tests such as total proteins, albumin, electrophoresis of proteins, serum iron, transferrine, ferretine, foliates, B12, B6, thiamine, niacin, biotin, riboflavin, panthotenic acid, inositol, biopterins, and colines (58-77).

2.7. Biomarkers of antioxidant status should be tested, such as the serum level of vitamin C, vitamin A, total carotenes, alpha carotene, beta carotene, beta criptoxantine, flavonoids, vitamin E, alpha tocopherol, copper, ceruloplasmine, zinc, selenium, chromium, manganese, glutathion, glutathion peroxidase, N-acetylcisteine and systemic tiol (9-44,78,79).

2.8. Evaluating the oxidation status of the body is also recommended, using tests such as markers for oxidation of DNA bases (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine) and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation such as malondyaldehide, lipid hydroperoxides, oxidized proteins, salicilate test, reduced glutathione, catalases and superoxidodysmutases (80-83).

2.9. The ELISA, Western blot, and viral load tests erroneously believed to indicate “HIV infection” (84-98) should be interpreted only as indirect biomarkers of the oxidation status or intoxication of the affected individual or community (46). Therefore, the HIV phenomenon, rather than being a cause, is an effect of exposure to immunological stressor agents and indicates the presence of proteins released during the body’s stress responses (99-107). It is necessary to fully understand that the so-called “tests for HIV” do not detect infection with “HIV”. There is not a single scientific reference demonstrating that the HIV phenomenon relates to a real virus (108-113).


3.1. It is imperative to avoid further intoxication of the organs and tissues by preventing as much as possible exposure to immunological stressor agents (4,54), especially the following:

3.2. Chemical stressors such as tobacco, alcohol, psychoactive drugs and aphrodisiacs (cocaine, heroin, “crack,” inhalable nitrites or “poppers,” amphetamines, etc.), chemical pollution, detergents, paints, air fresheners and sprays, food preservatives, toxic pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, corticosteroids, chemiotherapeutics and antiretrovirals (4,6-8,114-118).

3.3. Physical stressors such as ionizing and nonionizing radiation, electromagnetic fields from electric and electronic equipment, geopathies and cosmopathies (4,119).

3.4. Biological stressors such as blood and its derivatives, semen (especially via rectal insemination), vaccines, STDs, other infections, and parasitosis (4,120,121). Overgrowth of Candida albicans in the gastrointestinal tract and its dissemination to other sites should be monitored (i,y). In underdeveloped regions, it is necessary to provide clean water as well as proper disposal of waste and human excrement so as to eliminate sources of new infections and parasitosis (121).

3.5. Mental stressors such as anxiety, depression, and panic should be observed and treated (4,122). It is absolutely necessary to dispel any doubts about the causes of AIDS, its treatment and prevention in individuals, families, and communities (47-53). It is necessary to comprehend that, from a scientific viewpoint, it is perfectly possible to cure and prevent AIDS.

3.6. Nutritional stressors, such as the lack of food in underdeveloped countries and the proliferation of junk food in developed ones, need to be avoided (4,123). Nothing puts us more in contact with our environment than the food that we eat. As a consequence, it is necessary to consume as much natural and whole foods as possible, avoiding tobacco, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa, sodas, processed foods, canned food, foods containing chemical preservatives and refined products like sugar, white flour and sweeteners such as aspartame. It is also essential to decrease the consumption of animal proteins and fats, including dairy products, as well as sugars and candies. On the other hand, in underdeveloped regions, it is most essential to alleviate the lack of food. (123).

3.7. Life style; both health and disease depend upon our daily habits and our attitude toward life (2,4,124-129). It is necessary to adopt a positive and critical approach, so that “seropositive patients” become “seriously positive and impatient.” Adopting a combative attitude is a way to heal and survive. Maintaining an active life, working, having enough rest and sleep, practicing moderate physical exercise, and leaving some time for entertainment are all important factors for survival. For example, listening to music, dancing, singing, painting, and laughing – all can be survival tools. Other practical survival techniques include: wearing cotton and light colored clothes; practicing dry brushing and finishing showers with cold water; and practicing respiratory relaxation, and visualization exercises. Regular sexual activity is also important, without, however, toxic aphrodisiacs, lubricants, and spermicides, and without sadomasochistic practices. Further steps to thriving include discovering one’s interior life, stimulating personal growth, protecting nature, and helping other “seropositive” individuals and those suffering from AIDS.


4.1. In addition to the immune system we must detoxify the body’s excretion systems; digestive, liver, kidneys, lungs, skin, and any others manifesting signs of intoxication (130-132).

4.2. A variety of nutritional, energetic, magnetic, physical, mental, and spiritual techniques have demonstrated effectiveness in both detoxification and stimulation and regeneration of the immune system and other systems (133-141,a-z). Some of these include naturopathic medicine, homeopathy, acupuncture and moxibustion, neural therapy, digitopuncture, phitotherapy, nutritional therapy, use of quelant agents, hydrotherapy, therapy with sea water, reflexology, lymphatic massage, Bach flowers, hypertermia, biocatalitic oxygen therapy, aromatherapy, therapeutic massage, art therapy, music therapy, cromotherapy, hypnosis, yoga, tai-chi, qigong or chi kung, tuina or Chinese massage, reiki, magnetic therapy, sophrology, orthomolecular medicine, functional medicine, and spiritual care (133-141). As with conventional medicine, the effectiveness of these therapies depends on both the knowledge and expertise of the practitioner and on the acceptance of the person receiving the therapy or treatment.

4.3. Some herbs that may be used in the detoxifying process include (124-129,137,r-v,z) diuretic herbs such as common horsetail (Equisetum arvense) and herbs to protect the liver such as milk thistle or silymarin (Silybum marianum), boldo leaf (Pneumus boldus), common fumitory or earthsmoke (Fumaria officinalis), African desmodium (Desmodium ascendens), Chinese astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), and Ling Zhi or Chinese Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum). The aloe shake (Aloe vera) is useful in both detoxification and stimulation of tissues and is prepared by blending together 2 oz. of aloe gel, two tablespoons of honey, 4 kernels of black pepper, a small piece of ginger, and the juice of a lemon. Take freshly prepared, every day for 30 to 60 days. A good intestinal hygiene is crucial in the detoxification process and can be achieved with chamomile enemas followed by enemas with sunflower oil or flaxseed oil, as well as with supplements of lactobacillus.

4.4. A detoxifying and antioxidant diet is important (2,4,123-128). We suggest tissue cleansing, for example, by using a depurative diet without animal products and margarines and with organic fruits and vegetables. Dr. Kousmine’s depurative diet is a good option (142). We suggest eating whole cereals in any form (rice, barley, wheat, oat). Decrease sugar and candies. Increase the intake of fresh and dry fruits as well as raw organic vegetables and legumes. Drink lots of liquids; water (at least 1.5 litters per day), juices with fresh fruits and vegetables (especially carrots), vegetable broths, and green juices as a source of chlorophyll (for example, blend with water lettuce, spinach, celery, mint, parsley, coriander, and such – take without draining). Avoid dairy products, using as a substitute almond, oat, rice, and cashew milks. Avoid the genetically modified soy common in the United States, Canada and Argentina. Supervised fasting is beneficial (143). Also recommended is the use of bifidogenic foods, for example yogurt and kumis made from sheep or goat’s milk, tofu or miso (144). Coconut oil is a good source of louric and caprilic acids, which prevent candida growth (i).


5.1. This procedure should be initiated at the same time as the detoxifying procedure and may require months, years, or even the rest of the person’s life, depending upon the specific conditions of each individual or population.

It is necessary to achieve normal blood levels of antioxidants (145-150,r,s), for example, by using vitamin A and carotenoids (151-170), vitamin E (preferably vitamin Ed) (162,171,172), vitamin C (173-175), selenium (30-33), n-acetyl cisteine (34-40), l-glutamine (i), zinc (41-44), copper (44), manganese (r), alpha lipoic acid (r), ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10 (r), and flavonoids or vitamin P (r). Avoid exceeding normal blood levels and keep in mind the potential toxicity of metals and fat-soluble vitamins.

5.3. Achieving normal blood levels of vitamin A and other carotenoids prevents the so-called “transmission of HIV/AIDS” from person to person (176-178) and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery (179-190) or during breastfeeding (191). The potential theratogenic effects of vitamin A, betacarotene and other carotenoids should be considered (192).

5.4. Some interleukins, such as IL2, growth factors, B-complex vitamins, vitamin D, and lithium are useful for their stimulating and regenerative properties (193-201).

5.5. Any macro or micronutrient deficiencies should be meticulously addressed (202-212).

5.6. Certain herbs may be used for their immune stimulating and/or antioxidant properties (137,213-222): aloe (Aloe vera), astragalus (Astragalus membranaceus), Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), Fo-ti (Polygonum multiforum), turmeric (Curuma longa), echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia y E. purpurea), garlic (Allium sativum), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), golden seal (Hydrastis Canadensis), cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), grapeseed (Vitis vinifera), sarsaparrilla or smilax (Smilax officinalis y S. aspera). Sedative and relaxing herbs include: passion flower (Passiflora incarnata), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), mint (Menta sativa), lavender (Lavanda officinalis), Siberian ginseng (Eleuterococus senticosus).

5.7. An antioxidizing, stimulating, and regenerative diet should be followed (2,4,124-129). In addition to the detoxifying diet described in 4.4, it is necessary to practice a vegetarian or semi-vegetarian diet with quantities of fruits, especially papaya, mango, kiwi, pineapple, avocado, bananas, and dry fruits, and vegetables, cereals, legumes and algae. Avoid animal products and instead eat white fatty fish, sheep and goat meat. Preferably use sea salt. Use 60-80% fresh, whole, raw organic food. Whenever possible, use garlic, onions, asparagus, citric fruits, beets, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, carrots, yeast, wheat, and pollen, as well as sprouts. Use cold pressed oils (Below 40 degrees Celsius), since this manner of pressing preserves essential and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are needed in anti-inflammatory and regenerative processes. Carcamo, sunflower, and olive oils, in this order, are good sources of vitamin F or linoleic acid. Flaxseed oil is also a good source of alpha linoleic acid.


6.1. Specific conventional (223-227) and/or alternative or complementary treatments (a-z) can be used to treat: opportunistic infections (candidiasis, hystoplasmosis, coccidiodomycosis, cryptococosis, cryptosporidiosis, different types of herpetic infections, CMV infection, isosporiosis, tuberculosis, nocardiosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, Salmonella septicemia, estrongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis); tumors (Kaposi’s sarcoma, brain lymphoma, B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer); multiple metabolic disturbances (dementia/encefalopathy, progressive multifocal leucoencefalopaty, hair loss, weight loss, wasting syndrome, “slim” disease); and all other clinical manifestations that may result from deterioration of the defense, surveillance, and homeostasis mechanisms of the immune system.

6.2. Deteriorations in other organs and tissues should be corrected.

6.3. Success in the treatment of AIDS depends primarily upon guaranteeing and optimizing the nutritional status at both clinical and micronutrient levels (58-77,201-212,k-v).


In addition to consulting conventional health professionals, consultation with alternative or complimentary therapists is recommended, so long as the therapeutic approaches employed have recognized effectivity in the treatment and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases like AIDS (124-141,w-z).


8.1. The treatment and prevention of AIDS as a toxic and nutritional syndrome can only be effective if:

a) Neither the individual nor the community doubt that the treatment being used is the correct choice. They need to fully understand that AIDS is a degenerative, toxic, and nutritional syndrome, caused by involuntary and sometimes voluntary multiple, repeated, and chronic exposure to immunological stressor agents which generate a state of intoxication/oxidation of the immune system and other body systems. It is recommended that relatives as well as close friends also understand the curable nature of AIDS.

b) Treatment and prevention should be led by health care professionals and alternative therapists who thoroughly understand that AIDS is a preventable, curable, and eradicable toxic and nutritional syndrome, and who are committed to that goal. Preferably, practitioners should possess a broad and global view of both conventional and alternative/complementary medicine.

8.2. Frequently, “seropositive” individuals and patients are influenced by discussions with health care professionals or alternative therapists who defend the hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a virus named “HIV”. In this event, radical confrontations should be avoided since they only increase the anxiety and depression to which “seropositive” individuals and patients are already subject (47-53).

8.3. In the event that a patient with AIDS or a person who reacts positively on the so-called “tests for HIV”, after considering all available information (228-230), decides to change the so-called antiretrovirals for a nontoxic alternative, this should be done gradually and progressively, since the protease inhibitors that are a part of the “cocktails” have antioxidant actions (231), and eliminating them abruptly could cause further oxidative stress and immune suppression.

Websites containing scientific references concerning
the international debate about the causes and solutions for AIDS:


1.       GIRALDO RA. Polémica científica internacional acerca de la causa del sida. Investigación y Educaciín en Enfermería (Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia) 1996; 14(2): 55-74.
2.       GIRALDO RA. Papel de estresantes inmunológicos en inmunodeficiencia. IATREIA (Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Medicina, Medellín, Colombia) 1997; 10: 62-76.
3.       GIRALDO RA. El alarmante incremento mundial de agentes estresantes inmunologicos. In: AHUMADA C, HERNANDEZ A, VELASCO M. Relaciones internacionales, politica social y salud: desafios en la era de la globalización. Memorias foro internacional. Bogotá, Colombia: Fundación Cultural Javeriana de Artes Plásticas; 1998: 49-73.
4.       GIRALDO RA. Los agentes estresantes inmunológicos son la verdadera causa del sida. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 82-123.
5.       DUESBERG PH. Retroviruses as carcinogens and pathogens: expectations and reality. Cancer Research 1987;
6.       DUESBERG PH. AIDS acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors. Pharmac Ther 1992; 55:201-277.
7.       DUESBERG PH, RASNICK D. The drug-AIDS hypothesis. Continuum (London) 1997; 4(5): S1-S24.
8.       DUESBERG PH, RASNICK D. The AIDS dilemma: Drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus. Genetica 1998; 104: 85-132.
9.       PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E. Reappraisal of AIDS - Is the oxidation induced by the risk factors the primary cause? Medical Hypothesis 1988; 25:151-162.
10.    PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E, TURNER V & PAPADIMITRIOU J. Oxidative stress, HIV and AIDS. Res Immunol 1992; 143:145-148.
11.    PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E. Looking back on the oxidative stress theory of AIDS. Continuum (London) 1998-1999; 5(5): 30-35
12.    GIRALDO RA. Radicales libres e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 33-36.
13.    FAVIER A. The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection. A collection of papers presented at a conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection”, Les Deux Alpes, France, January 1993. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 77-224.
14.    PIETTE et al. Molecular mechanisms of virus activation by free radicals. Collection of 5 articles presented at a conference on “The place of oxygen free radicals in HIV infection” Les Deux Alpes, France, January 1993. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 79-132.
15.    FAVIER A et al. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with HIV. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 165-180.
16.    FUCHS J et al. Oxidative imbalance in HIV infected patients. Med Hypothesis 1991; 36: 60-64.
17.    JARSTRAND C, AKERLUND B. Oxygen radical release by neutrophils of HIV-infected patients. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 141-146.
18.    LACEY CJ et al. Antioxidant-micronutrients and HIV infection. International J STD & AIDS 1996; 7: 485-489.
19.    PASSI S. Progressive increase of oxidative stress in advanced human immunodeficiency. Continuum (London) 1998; 5(4): 20-26.
20.    JAVIER JJ et al. Antioxidant micronutrients and immune function in HIV-1 infection. FASEB Proc 1990; 4A: 940-945.
21.    ALLARD VP et al. Oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant micronutrients in humans with HIV infection. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67: 143-147.
22.    REVILLARD JP, FAVIER AE, ZITTOUN MICHELE. Lipid peroxidation in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J AIDS 1992; 5: 637-638.
23.    SALVAIN B, MARK AW. The role of oxidative stress in disease progression in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. J Leukocyte Biol 1992; 52: 111.
24.    BARUCHEL S, WAINBERG MA. The role of oxidative stress in disease progression in individuals infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. J Leukocyte Biol 1992; 51: 111-114.
25.    CONSTANS J et al. Fatty acids and plasma antioxidants in HIV-positive patients: correlation with nutritional and immunological status. Clinical Biochemistry 1995; 28: 421-426.
26.    POLYAKOV VM et al. Superoxide anion production and enzymatic disbalance in peripheral blood cells isolated from HIV-infected children. Free Radic Biol Med 1994; 16: 15-21.
27.    HOMMES MJT et al. Resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected asymptomatic men: HIV affects host metabolism in the early asymptomatic stage. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54: 311-315.
28.    SHALLENBERGER F. Selective compartmental dominance: An explanation for a nonifectious, multifactorial etiology for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other immune modulating therapies. Med Hypothesis 1998; 50:67-80.
29.    STAAL FJT et al. Antioxidants inhibit stimulation of HIV transcription. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1993; 9: 299-306.
30.    DWORKIN BM, ROSENTHAL W, WORMSER G, WEISS L. Selenium deficiency in the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 1986; 10: 405.
31.    DWORKIN BM. Selenium deficiency in HIV infection and the aquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 181-186.
32.    CIRELLI A et al. Serum selenium concentration and disease progress in patients with HIV infection. Clin Biochem 1991; 24: 211-214.
33.    SCHRAUZER GN, SACHER J. Selenium in the maintenance and therapy of HIV-infected patients. Chem Biol Inter 1994; 91: 199.
34.    SIMON G et al. Effects of glutathione precursors on huma immunodeficiency virus replication. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 217-224.
35.    STAAL FJT et al. Intracellular glutathione levels in T-cells subsets decrease in the blood plasma of HIV-1 infected patients. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 1989; 370: 101-108.
36.    BUHL R et al. Systemic glutathion deficiency in symptom-free HIV seropositive individuals. Lancet 1989; ii: 1294-1298.
37.    DORGE W, ECK HL, MIHM S. HIV-induced cysteine deficiency and T-cell dysfunction: a rationale for treatment with n-acetyl-cysteine. Immunol Today 1992; 13: 211.
38.    PASSI S et al. Study on plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E, and on erythrocyte glutathion peroxidase in highrisk HIV infection categories and AIDS patients. Clin Chem Enzym Comns 1993; 5: 169-177.
39.    QUEY B et al. Glutathione depletion in HIV-infected patients: role of cysteine deficiency and effect of oral n-acetyl-cysteine. AIDS 1992; 5: 814.
40.    KALEVIC T et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus expression in chronically infected monocytic cells by glutathione, glutathione ester and N-acetyl-cysteine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 1991; 88: 986
41.    FABRIS N et al. AIDS, zinc deficiency and thymic hormone failure. JAMA 1988; 259: 839.
42.    WALTER R et al. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Life Sci 1990; 47: 1579.
43.    FALUTZ J et al. Zinc as a cofactor in HIV-induced immunosuppression. JAMA 1988; 259: 2850-2851.
44.    GRAHAM N et al. Relationship of serum cooper and zinc levels to HIV-1 seropositivity and progression to AIDS. JAIDS 1991; 4: 976-980.
45.    GIRALDO RA. AIDS and Stressors: AIDS in Neither an Infectious Disease nor is Sexually Transmitted. It is a Toxic-Nutritional Syndrome Caused by the Alarming Worldwide Increment of Immunological Stressor Agents. Medellín, Colombia: Impresos Begón, 1997: 205.
46.    GIRALDO RA. El verdadero significado de ser “VIH positivo”. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 109-112.
47.    KIECOLT-GLASER JK, GLASER R. Psychological influences on immunity. Implications for AIDS. Amer J Psychol 1988; 43: 892-899.
48.    KEMENY ME. Psychoneuroimmunology of HIV infection. In: ZEGANS LS, COATES TJ. Psychiatric manifestations of HIV disease. Psychiat Clin N Am 1994; 17: 55-68.
49.    PERRY S. Psychoneuroimmunology and AIDS: challenge or “challenger”? In: STEIN M, BAUM A. Perspectives in behavioral medicine: chronic diseases. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated Publishers; 1995: 273-286.
50.    COLE SW, KEMENY ME. Psychosocial influences on the progression of HIV infection. In: ADDER R, FELTEN DL, COHEN N. Psychoneuroimmunology. 3a ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 2001: 583-612.
51.    ADDER R, FELTEN DL, COHEN N. Psychoneuroimmunology. 3er ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 2001: Vol 1: 727p, Vol 2: 856p.
52.    FRIEDMAN H, BENDINELLI M, SPECTER S. Psychoneuroimmunology, stress and infections. Nueva York: Plenum Press; 1995: 300.
53.    KEMENY ME et al. Psychoneuroimmunology. In: NEMEROFF C. Neuroendocrinology. Telford, NJ: Telford Press; 1992: 563-591.
54.    GIRALDO RA. Propuesta para la patogénesis y la historia natural del sida. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 47-71.
55.    KIMBER I, SELGRADE MJK. T lymphocyte subpopulations in immunotoxicology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1998: 302.
56.    BREEN C, GOLIGHTLY M. Immunodeficiency. In: LEHMANN CA. Saunders manual of clinical laboratory science. Philasdelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1998; 307-324.
57.    ROSE NR, HAMILTON RG, DETRICK B. Manual of clinical laboratory immunology. 6a ed. Washington: ASM Press; 2002: 1322.
58.    BEACH RS, LAURA PF. Nutrition and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1983; 99: 565-566.
59.    CHELLURI L, JASTREMSKI MS. Insidence of malnutrition in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Nutr Clin Pract 1989; 4: 16-18.
60.    CHLEBOWSKI RT. Significance of altered nutritional status in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nutr Cancer 1985; 7: 85-91.
61.    COODLEY GO. Nutritional deficiency and AIDS. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 809.
62.    GRAY RH. Similarities between AIDS and protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). AJPH 1983; 73: 1332
63.    JAIN VK, CHANDRA RK. Does nutritional deficiency predispose to AIDS? Nutr Res 1984; 4: 537-542.
64.    KEUSCH GT, FARTHING MJG. Nutritional aspects of AIDS. Annu Rev Nutr 1990; 10: 475-501.
65.    KEUSCH GT, THEA DM. Malnutrition in AIDS. Medical Clinics of North America: Clinical Nutrition 1993; 77: 795-814.
66.    KOTLER DP et al. Body composition studies in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 42: 1255-1265.
67.    ABRAMS B et al. A prospective study of dietary intake and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in HIV-seropositive homosexual men. J AIDS 1993; 6: 949-958.
68.    BAUM MK et al. Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS; 1995; 9: 1051-1056.
69.    BEACH RS et al. Specific nutrient abnormalities in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. AIDS 1992; 6: 701-708.
70.    MELCHIOR JC et al. Resting energy expenditure is increased in stable malnourished HIV-infected patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 437-441.
71.    PERIQUET BA et al. Micronutrient levels in HIV-1 infected children. AIDS 1995; 9: 887-893.
72.    MOSESON M et al. The potential role of nutritional factors in the induction of immunologic abnormalities in HIV-positive homosexual men. JAIDS 1989; 2: 235-247.
73.    SKURNICK JH, et al. Micronutrients profiles in HIV-1-infected heterosexual adults. J Acq Immundef Syndr Hum Retrov 1996; 12: 75-83.
74.    TANG AM et al. Dietary micronutrient intake and risk progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected homosexual men. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 1-15.
75.    TANG AM et al. Effects of micronutrients intake on survival in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 1244-1256.
76.    BOGDEN JD et al. Micronutrients status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990; 547: 189-195.
77.    COODLEY GO et al. Micronutrient concentrations in the HIV wasting syndrome. AIDS 1993; 7: 1595-1600.
78.    KEHRER JP. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 1993; 23: 21-48.
79.    REID L. Oxidative stress and antioxidants. A nutritional perspective. Continuum (London) 1998; 5(3): 52-54.
80.    SLATER TF. Free radicals: formation, detection, reactivity, and citoxicity. In: LACHMAN PJ, PETERS SK, ROSEN FS, WALPORT MJ. Clinical aspects of immunology. Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993: 377-393.
81.    SIMIC MG. DNA markers of oxidative processes in vivo: relevance to carcinogenesis and anticarcinogenesis. Cancer Res (Suppl) 1994; 54: 1918s.
82.    JOVANOVIC S. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in clinical practice. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients 1998; August/September: 72-76.
83.    ARMSTRONG D. Oxitadive stress biomarkers and antioxidant protocols. Totowa, NJ; 2002: 322.
84.    PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E, TURNER V & PAPADIMITRIOU JM. Is a positive Western blot proof of HIV infection? Bio/Technology 1993; 11:696-707.
85.    PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E, TURNER V, PAPADIMITRIOU J & CAUSER D. HIV Antibodies: further questions and a plea for clarification. Curr Med Res Opin 1997; 13: 627-634.
86.    TURNER VF. Do HIV Antibody tests prove HIV infection? Continuum (London) 1996; 3:8-11.
87.    TURNER VF. Do antibody tests prove HIV infection? Interview by Huw Christie editor of Continuum. Continuum (London) Winter 1997/8; 5(2): 10-19.
88.    GIRALDO RA. Las pruebas de ELISA, Western blot y carga viral usadas en el diagnóstico de la “infección VIH” no son adecuadas. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 87-92.
89.    GIRALDO RA. Ser “VIH positivo” o “seropositivo” no indica estar infectado con el “VIH”. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 92-95.
90.    CHRISTIE H. CONTINUUM. HIV Positive? - It depends where you live. Take a look at the criteria that determine a positive HIV test result. Continuum (London) 1995; 3(4): 20.
91.    SHENTON J. Positively false. Exposing the myths about HIV and AIDS. London: I.B. Tauris; 1998: 277.
92.    HODGKINSON N. Science fails the “AIDS test”. In: AIDS: the failure of contemporary science. How a virus that never was deceived the world. London: Fourth Estate, 1996: 232-262.
93.    JOHNSON C. Playing Russian roulete in the lab: Can you really trust the AIDS test? New York: The HEAL Bulletin, Special Edition, 1993.
94.    JOHNSON C. Is anyone really positive? Continuum (London); April/May 1995.
95.    JOHNSON C. Factors known to cause false-Positive HIV antibody test results; Zenger’s San Diego, California, September 1996: 8-9.
96.    JOHNSON C. Whose antibodies are they anyway? Continuum (London), September/October 1996; 4(3):4-5.
97.    JOHNSON C. The PCR to prove HIV infection. Viral load and why they can’t be used. Continuum (London) 1996; 4:33-37 and 39.
98.    PHILPOTT P & JOHNSON C. Viral load of crap. Reappraising AIDS 1996; 4(10):1-4.
99.    GIRALDO RA. Everybody Reacts Positive on the ELISA Test for HIV. Continuum (London) 1999; 5(5): 8-10.
100.       WING MG. The molecular basis for a polyspecific antibody. Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 99: 313-315.
101.       BARBACID M, BOLOGNESI D, AARONSON SA. Humans have antibodies capable of recognizing oncoviral glycoproteins: demonstration that these antibodies are formed in response to cellular modification of glycoproteins rather than as consequence of exposure to virus. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 1617-1621.
102.       SNYDER HW, FLEISSNER E. Specificity of human antibodies to oncovirus glycoproteins: recognition of antigen by natural antibodies directed against carbohydrate structures. Pro Nat Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 1622-1626.
103.       KOVAL TM. Stress-Inducible Processes in Higher Eukaryotic Cells. New York: Plenum Press, 1997: 256.
104.       LATCHMAN DS. Stress Proteins. Springer, 1999: 422.
105.       MORIMOTO R, TISSIERES A, GEORGOPOULOS C. Stress Proteins in Biology and Medicine. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press 1990: 450.
106.       SCHLESINGER MJ, SANTORO MG, GARACI E. Stress Proteins: Induction and Function. Berlin: Springer-Verlag 1990: 123.
107.       VAN EDEN W, YOUNG DB. Stress Proteins in Medicine. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1996: 578.
108.       PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E, TURNER VF, PAPADIMITRIOU JM & CAUSER D. The isolation of HIV: Has it really been achieved? The case against. Continuum (London) 1996; 4(3): S1-S24.
109.       PAPADOPULOS-ELEOPULOS E, TURNER V, PAPADIMITRIOU J, et al. Why no whole virus? Continuum (London) 1997; 4(5): 27-30.
110.       PHILPOTT P. The isolation question. Does HIV exist? Do HIV tests indicate HIV infection? Here’s why some scientists say no. How an Australian biophysicist and her simple observations have taken center stage among AIDS reappraisers. Reappraising AIDS 1997; 5(6):1-12.
111.       DE HARVEN E. Pioneer deplores “HIV” “Maintaining errors is evil” Continuum (London) 1997/8; 5(2): 24.
112.       DE HARVEN E. Remarks on methods for retroviral isolation. Continuum (London) 1998; 5(3):20-21.
113.       GIRALDO RA. El denominado “virus del sida” o VIH parece que ni siquiera existe. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 95-99.
114.       GIRALDO RA, ELLNER M, FARBER C, et al. Is it rational to treat or prevent AIDS with toxic antiretroviral drugs in pregnant women, infants, children, and anybody else? The answer is negative. Continuum (London) 1999; 5(6): 38-52.
115.       LAURITSEN J. Poison by prescription: the AZT story. Nueva York: Asklepios; 1990.
116.       GIRALDO RA. Estresantes químicos e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 24-26.
117.       AL-BAYATI MA. Are steroids the real cause of AIDS? Zenger’s magazine January 2000 (Issue # 67).
118.       EMBID A. Inmunosupresión y pesticides. Medicinas complementarias 1997; No. 46: 152.
119.       GIRALDO RA. Estresantes físicos e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 26-27.
120.       GIRALDO RA. Estresantes biológicos e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 27-29.
121.       GIRALDO RA. Papel de las enfermedades tropicales en el debilitamiento del sistema inmunológico y en la fisiopatogénesis del sida. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 37-46.
122.       GIRALDO RA. Estresantes mentales e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 29-31.
123.       GIRALDO RA. Estresantes nutricionales e inmunodeficiencia. In: Sida y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia; 2002: 31-33.
124.       RODENAS P. Alimentación y dietética. In: El médico naturista opina. Una visión natural de la salud y la alimentación. Barcelona: Océano Ambar; 2000: 151-199.
125.       RODENAS P. El cuidado de nosotros mismos. In: El médico naturista opina. Una visión natural de la salud y la alimentación. Barcelona: Océano Ambar; 2000: 203-238.
126.       ROGERS SA. Man does not live by bread alone: enzymes, juicing, cleansing, flushing and brushing. In: Wellness against all odds. Syracuse, NY: Prestige Publishing; 1994: 110-144.
127.       CAUDILL-SLOSBERG M, FRIEDMAN R. The mind/body model of heath and illness. In: BENSON H, STUART EM. The wellness book: The comprehensive guide to maintaining health and treating stress-related illness. Boston: Birch Lane Press; 1992: 8-14.
128.       LOCKIE A, GEDDES N. Estilo de vida y salud. In: La guia completa de la homeopatía: los principios y la práctica del tratamiento. Buenos Aires: Javier Vergara; 1996: 26-29.
129.       LANDABURU E. Sobre el bienestar físico. In: Cuidate compa! Barcelona: Txalaparta; 2001: 13-130.
130.       HASS EM. The detox diet. Berkeley, California: Celestial arts; 1996.
131.       HASS EM, NOVEY DW. Detoxification therapy. In: NOVEY DW. Clinician’s complete reference to complementary/alternative medicine. St Louis: Mosby; 2000: 702-715.
132.       GOLDBERG B. Detoxification therapy. In: Alternative Medicine. The definitive guide. Fife, Washington: Future Medicine Publishing Inc.; 1994: 156-166.
133.       SCHULTZ V, HANSEL R, TYLER VE. Agents that increase resistance to disease: adaptogens; immune stimulants; botanical antioxidants. In: Rational phytotherapy. A physician guide to herbal medicine. Springer; 1998: 269-273, 273-281, 282-286.
134.       YUAN-KUN L et al. Modulation of immune responses. In: Handbook of probiotics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999: 161-177.
135.       CAO X. Protective effect of accupunture on immunosuppression. In: NIH Consensus Development Conference on Accupunture, November 3-5, 1997. Bethesda, William Natcher Conference Center. Bethesda: NIH Continuing Medical Education. 1997: 129-133.
136.       REID D. The complete book of Chinese health and healing. Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc.; 1995: 484.
137.       HALLOWELL M. Herbal healing: a practical introduction to medicinal herbs. Garden City Park, New York: Avery Publishing Group; 1994: 191.
138.       BATMANGHELIDJ F. Your body’s many cries for water. Fall Church, Virginia: Global Health Solutions Inc.; 1997: 181
139.       MAHE A. El plasma de Quinton. El agua de mar nuestro medio interno. Barcelona: Romanya/Valls, S. A.; 2001: 190.
140.       EMBID A. Acción de la acupuntura-moxibustión sobre las reacciones inmunológicas. Medicinas Complementarias 1986; No. 2: 17-22.
141.       EMBID A. Masaje, maduración e inmunidad. Medicinas Complementarias 1991 No. 27: 78.
142.       KOUSMINE C. El método Kousmine. Medicinas Complementarias 1989; No. 17: 19-23.
143.       BUCHINGER A. Fasting. En: NOVEY DW. Clinician’s complete reference to complementary/alternative medicine. St. Louis: Mosby; 2000: 728-740.
144.       EMBID A. El yogur estimula la inmunidad. Medicinas Complementarias 1994; No. 35: 171.
145.       TURNER VF. Reducing agents and AIDS - Why are we waiting? Med J Austr 1990; 153:502.
146.       HALLIWELL B, CROSS C. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151: 29-31.
147.       ADAM ES. Antioxidant supplementation in HIV/AIDS. Nurse Practit 1995; 20: 8.
148.       BENDICH A. Role of antioxidants in the maintenance of immune function. In: FREI B. Natural antioxidants in human health and disease. (Chapter IV, Immunity and Infection). San Diego: Academic Press; 1994: 447-467.
149.       BENDICH A. Antioxidant micronutrients and immunity. In: ROITT IM, DELVES PJ. Encyclopedia of immunology. San Diego: Academic Press; 1992: 151-153.
150.       FAWZI WW, HUNTER DJ. Vitamins in HIV disease progression and vertical transmission. Epidemiology 1998; 9: 457-466.
151.       SEMBA RD. Vitamin A, immunity, and infection. Clin Inf Dis 1994; 19: 489-499.
152.       SEMBA RD. The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev 1998; 56: S38-S48.
153.       WARD BJ et al. Vitamin A status in HIV infection. Nutr Res 1993; 13: 157-166.
154.       SEMBA RD et al. Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 1993; 153: 2149-2154.
155.       SEMBA RD et al. Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users. JID 1995; 171: 1196-1202.
156.       FAWZI WW et al. A randomized trial of vitamin A supplements in relation to mortality among human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children in Tanzania. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999; 18: 127-133.
157.       COUTSOUDIS A et al. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1076-1081.
158.       SEMBA RD et al. Vitamin A deficiency and wasting as predictors of mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users. JIF 1994; 171: 1196-1202.
159.       SEMBA RD. Vitamin A and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Proc Nutr Soc 1997; 56: 1-11.
160.       KARTER DL et al. Vitamin A deficiency in non-vitamin-supplemented patients with AIDS: a cross-sectional study. J AIDS Hum Retrovirol 1995; 8: 199-203.
161.       LANDESMAN S. Vitamin A relationships to mortality in HIV disease and effects on HIV infection: recent and late breaking studies. Presented at forum, Lawton Chiles International House, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, May 16, 1996.
162.       TANG AM et al. Association between serum vitamin A and E levels and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 1997; 11: 613-620.
163.       COODLEY GO. Beta-carotene therapy in human immunodeficiency virus infection (Abstract). Clin Res 1991; 29: 634A.
164.       COODLEY GO et al. Beta-carotene in HIV infection. JAIDS 1993; 272-276.
165.       COODLEY et al. Beta-carotene in HIV infection: an extended evaluation. AIDS 1996; 10: 967-973.
166.       GAREWAL HS et al. A preliminary trial of beta-carotene in subjects infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Nutr 1992; 122: 728-732.
167.       ULLRICH R et al. Serum carotene deficiency in HIV-1 infected patients. AIDS 1994; 8: 661-665.
168.       LOYA S et al. The carotenoid halocynthiaxanthin: a novel inhibitor of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and type 2. Arch Biochem Biophys 1992; 293: 208-212.
169.       WATSON RR et al. Enhanced survival by vitamin A supplentation during retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS. Life Sci 1988; 43: 13-18.
170.       YANG Y et al. Retinoic acid inhibition of ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus-associated apoptosis of peripheral blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 3051-3055.
171.       WANG Y et al. Nutritional status and immune responses in mice with murine AIDS are normalized by vitamin E supplementation. J Nutr 1994; 124: 2024-2032.
172.       WANG Y et al. Modulation of immune function and cytokine production by various levels of vitamin E supplementation during murine AIDS. Immunopharmacol 1995; 29: 225-233.
173.       CATHART R. Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Med Hypothesis 1984: 14: 423.
174.       HARAKEH S, JARIWALLA RJ, PAULING L. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascarbate in chronically and acutely infected cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 1990; 87: 7245-7249.
175.       HARAKEH S et al. Mechanistic aspects of ascarbate inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus. Chemico-biological Interactions 1994; 91: 207-215.
176.       MCDONALD KS et al. Vitamin A and risk of HIV-1 seroconversion among Kenyan men with genital ulcers. AIDS 2001; 15: 635-639.
177.       MEHENDALE SM et al. Low carotenoid concentration and the risk of HIV seroconversion in Pune, India. JAIDS 2001; 26: 352-359.
178.       MOORE PS et al. Role of nutritional status and weight loss in HIV seroconversion among Rwandan women. JAIDS 1993; 6: 611-616.
179.       GREENBERG BL et al. Vitamin A deficiency and maternal-infant transmission of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United States. AIDS 1997; 11: 325-332.
180.       SEMBA RD et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994; 343: 1593-1597.
181.       FAWZI WW et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. JAIDS 2000; 23: 246-254.
182.       PHUAPRADIT W et al. Serum vitamin A and betha-carotene levels in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1. Ostet Gynecol 1996; 87: 564-567.
183.       SEMBA RD et al. Infant mortality and maternal vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Inf Dis 1995; 21: 966-972.
184.       COUTSOUDIS A et al. Ramdomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. AIDS 1999; 13: 1517-1524.
185.       LAN Y et al. Carotenoid status of pregnant women with and without HIV infection in Malawi. East Afr Med J 1999; 76: 133-137.
186.       FAWZI WW et al. Randomized trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in Tanzania. Lancet 1998; 351: 1477-1482.
187.       SEMBA RD et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and child growth failure during human immunodeficiency virus infection. JAIDS 1997; 14: 219-222.
188.       COUTSOUDIS A et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on viral load in HIV-1 infected pregnant women. JAIDS 1997; 15: 86-87.
189.       JOHN GC et al. Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge, and severe vitamin A deficiency. JID 1997; 175: 57-62.
190.       MOSTAD SB et al. Hormonal concentration, vitamin A deficiency, and other risk factors for shedding of HIV-1 infected cells from cervix and vagina. Lancet 1997; 350: 922-927.
191.       NDUATI RW et al. Human immunodeficieny virus type-1 infected cells in breast milk: association with immunosuppression and vitamin A deficiency. JID 1995; 172: 1461-1468.
192.       ROTHMAN KJ et al. Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. NEJM 1995; 333: 1369-1373.
193.       BOUMPAS DT et al. Interleukins and interferons. In: RICH RR. Clinical immunology, principles and practice. Chapter F, Immune Modulation. London: Mosby; 2001: 115.1-115.12.
194.       BYRN RA, ROBERTS MR. Cellular therapy approaches to the treatment of AIDS. In: MORSTYN G, SHERIDAN W. Cell Therapy: Stem cell transplantation, gene therapy, and cellular immunotherapy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996: 414-428.
195.       MOORE MAS. Colony-stimulating factor. In: RICH RR. Clinical immunology, principles and practice. Chapter F Immune Modulation. London: Mosby; 2001: 114.1-114.13.
196.       EHRENPREIS ED et al. Malabsorption and deficiency of vitamin B12 in HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhea. Dig Dis Sci 1994; 39: 2159-2162.
197.       TANG AM et al. Low serum vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with faster human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease progression. J Nutr 1997; 127: 345-351.
198.       BAUM MK et al. Association of vitamin B6 status with parameters of immune function in early HIV-1 infection. JAIDS 1991; 4: 1122-1132.
199.       HAUG C et al. Subnormal serum concentration of 1,25-vitamin D in human immunodeficiency infection: correlation with degree of immune deficiency and survival. JID 1994; 169: 889-893.
200.       LIEB J. Lithium and immune function. Med Hypothesis 1987; 23: 73-93.
201.       SHENKMAN L, BORKOWSKY W, SHOPSIN B. Lithium as an immunologic adjuvant. Med Hypothesis 1980; 6: 1-6.
202.       FENTON M, SILVERMAN E. Medical nutritional therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In: MAHAN K, ESCOTT-STUMP S. Krause’s Food, nutrition and diet therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2000: 889-911.
203.       ROMEYN M. Nutrition and HIV. San Francisco: Jossey-Bas Publishers; 1995: 353.
204.       HICKSON JF. Diet and nutrition for optimal immune function. En: BAHL SM, HICKSON JF. Nutritional care for HIV-positive persons: a manual for individuals and their caregivers. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1995: 1-36.
205.       PASSI S, DE LUCA C. Dietetic advice for immunodeficiency. Continuum (London) 1998-1999; 5(5): 43-52.
206.       FERGUSON A, GRIFFIN GE. Nutrition and the immune system. En: GARROW JS, JAMES WPT, RALPH A. Human nutrition and dietetics. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2000: 747-766.
207.       LABE RF. Nutrition support. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 1993; 13: 323-530.
208.       BEISEL WR. Single nutrients and immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 35: 417-468.
209.       BEISEL WR. The history of nutritional immunology. J Nutr Immunol 1991; 1: 62-78.
210.       CHANDRA RK. Micronutrients and immune functions, an overview. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990; 587: 9-16.
211.       EMBID A. Inmunidad aumentada por incremento de micronutrients. Medicinas Complementarias 1994; No. 35: 172.
212.       EMBID A. Inmunoterapia a dosis infinitesimales. Medicinas Complementarias 1995; No. 38: 170.
213.       TYLER VE, ROBBERS JE. Tyler’s Herbs of choice: the therapeutic use of phytomedicinals. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press; 1999: 287.
214.       ATKINS RC. Immune-enhancing herbs. Infection fighters. In: Dr. Atkins’ vita-nutrient solution. Nature’s answer to drugs. Nueva York: Fireside; 1999: 294-296 y 297-299.
215.       FISHMAN RHB. Antioxidants and phytotherapy. Lancet 1994: 344: 1356.
216.       GREENSPAN HC. The role of oxidative oxygen species, antioxidants and phytopharmaceuticals in human immunodeficiency virus activity. Med Hypothesis 1993; 40: 85.
217.       GREENSPAN HC, AROUMA O. Oxidative stress and apoptosis in HIV infection: a role for plant-derived metabolites with synergistic antioxidant activity. Immunol Today 1994; 15: 209.
218.       GREENSPAN HC, AROUMA O. Could oxidative stress initiate programmed cell death in HIV infection? A role for plant derived metabolites having synergistic antioxidant activity. Chemico-Biological Interactions 1994; 91: 187-197.
219.       EMBID A. El polvo de defensa de jade, una receta clásica para estimular la inmunidad. Medicinas Complementarias 1993; No. 32: 73-87.
220.       EMBID A. Astragalus un biomodulador del sistema inmunitario. Medicinas Complementarias 1994; No. 35: 67-71.
221.       EMBID A. Más plantas para estimular la inmunidad. Medicinas Complementarias 1994; No. 36: 174.
222.       EMBID A. Uña de gato para el sida. Medicinas Complementarias 1994; No. 36: 174.
223.       MANN J, HOY J, MILLS J. Management of the HIV-infected patient. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996: 437.
224.       BARLETT JG, FINKBEINER AK. The guide to living with HIV infection. Johns Hopkins AIDS Clinic. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1996: 295.
225.       DOLIN R, MASUR H, SAAG MS. AIDS therapy. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1999: 864.
226.       POWDERLY WG. Manual of HIV therapeutics. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001: 274.
227.       CROWES S, HOY J, MILLS J. Management of the HIV-infected patient. London: Martin Dunitz; 2002: 630.
228.       SILVERMAN WA. Informing and consenting. En: Where’s the evidence? Controversies in modern medicine. Oxford: Oxford University PRESS; 1998: 78-84.
229.       O’MARA P. Life, liberty, and informed consent. Mothering (September-October) 1998; (90): 6-9.
230.       GOSTIN LO, LAZZARINI Z. International human rights law in the AIDS pandemic. En: Human rights and public health in the AIDS pandemic. Nueva York: Oxford university Press; 1997: 1-42.
231.       TANG AM et al. Improved antioxidant status among HIV-infected injecting drug users on potent antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS 2000; 23: 321-326.
a.        GIRALDO R. Tratamiento y prevención del sida como síndrome tóxico-nutricional. In: SIDA y agentes estresantes. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia. 2002: 112-115.
b.        RODENAS P. Cuál es el tratamiento del sida? In: El médico naturista opina: Una vision natural de la salud y la alimentación. Barcelona: Océano Grupo Editorial, S.A. 2000: 109-115.
c.        EMBID A. Estimular las defensas de otra forma. Tratamientos de los síndromes de inmunodeficiencia. Madrid: Medicinas complementarias 1992: 214.
d.        EMBID A. Enciclopedia de medicina functional y oligoterapia. Madrid: Medicinas complementarias; 1992.
e.        NULL G. Alternative treatments. In: AIDS: A second opinion. New York: Seven Stories Press; 2002: 487-581.
f.        GOLDBERG B. AIDS. In: Alternative Medicine. The definitive guide. Fife, Washington: Future Medicine Publishing Inc.; 1994: 494-509.
g.        ABRAMS DI. Alternative therapies. En: SANDE MA, VOLBERDING PA. The medical management of AIDS. 6a ed. Filadelfia: W.B. Saunders Company; 1999: 601-612.
h.       BADGLEY L. Healing AIDS naturally: natural therapies for the immune system. Foster City, California: Human energy Press; 1990: 410.
i.         BYRNES S. Overcoming AIDS with natural medicine: A program for recovery. Revised, 2nd edition. Honolulu, Hawaii: Ecclesia Life Mana; 2001: 183.
j.         REILLO M. AIDS under pressure: hyperbaric medicine in the management of HIV disease. Seattle: Gogrefe & Huber Publishers; 1997: 124.
k.       FENTON M, SILVERMAN E. Medical nutrition therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In: MAHAN LK, ESCOTT-Stump S. Food, nutrition, & diet therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2000: 889-911.
l.         MAHAN LK, ESCOTT-STUMP S. Medical nutrition therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In: Krause’s food, nutrition and diet therapy. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2000: 889-911.
m.      ROMEYN M. Nutrition and HIV. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1995: 355.
n.       BAHL SM, HICKSON JF. Nutritional care for HIV-positive persons: a manual for individuals and their caregivers. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1995: 190.
o.       WATSON RR. Nutrition and AIDS. 2a ed. Boca Raton: CRC press; 2001: 231.
p.       BEISEL WR. AIDS. In: GERSHWIN ME, GERMAN JB, KEEN CL. Nutrition and immunology: principles and practice. Totowa: Human Press; 2000: 389-401.
q.        GERRIOR J, WANKE C. Nutrition and immunodeficiency syndromes. In: COULSTON AM, ROCK CL, MONSEN ER. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. San Diego: Academic Press; 2001: 741-750.
r.        ZHANG Z, INSERRA PF, WATSON RR. Antioxidants and AIDS. In: GAREWAL HS. Antioxidants and disease prevention. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1997: 31-43.
s.        BENDICH A. Role of antioxidants in the maintenance of immune system. In: FREI B. Natural antioxidants in human health and disease. (Chapter IV Immunity and Infection). San Diego: Academic Press; 1994: 447-467.
t.        GAREWAL HS. Antioxidants and disease prevention. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1997: 186.
u.        SIES H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. London: Academic Press; 1991: 507.
v.       FREI B. Natural antioxidants in human health and disease. San Diego: Academic Press; 1994: 588.
w.       BRIGTHOPE I. The AIDS fighters. New Canaan, Conneccticut: Keats Publishing; 1988: 184.
x.       CALLEN M. Surviving AIDS. Nueva York: Harper Collins; 1990.
y.       CHAITOW L. Candida Albican, could yeast be your problem? Expanded and revised edition. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press; 1998:1522.
z.       CHAITOW L. The natural way: HIV & AIDS. Your guide to complementary therapies, alternative techniques and conventional treatments. Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books Limited; 1999: 150.

[1] Physician, specialist in internal medicine, infectious and tropical diseases. New York <>

[2] Naturopathic Physician. Barcelona, Spain. <>

[3] Physician, specialist in obstetrics and gynocology, human reproduction and fetal physiology. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. <>

[4] Acupunturist, coordinator of the Association of Complementary Medicines. Madrid, Spain. <>